Federal Trade Commission - September 1993
Refinancing Your Home
|Bureau of Consumer Protection Office
of Consumer & Business Education
you refinance your home mortgage? That's a question many
homeowners are asking, given the lower mortgage rates that are
But, how do you decide if refinancing makes sense in your particular case? The answer depends on many factors, including your tax bracket, the length of time you plan to stay in your home, and the additional costs and charges you must pay for the refinancing.
What follows is information to help you decide whether to refinance your home mortgage and how to go about doing it. You may want to refer to the charts on pages 9 and 10 to see how much money you might save if you refinanced your mortgage. (We apologize that the charts are not available on-line. To obtain a copy of the charts, please request a free copy of the brochure by contacting: Public Reference, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D.C. 20580; (202) 326-2222. TDD call (202) 326-2502.)
When you refinance your mortgage, you usually
pay off your original mortgage and sign a new loan. With a new
loan, you again pay most of the same costs you paid to get your
original mortgage. These can include settlement costs, discount
points, and other fees. You also may be charged a penalty for
paying off your original loan early, although some states
The total expense for refinancing a mortgage depends on the interest rate, number of points, and other costs required to obtain a loan. To obtain the lowest rate offered by the lender, most lenders will charge several points, and the total cost can run between three and six percent of the total amount you borrow. So, for example, on a $100,000 mortgage, the lender might charge you between $3,000 and $6,000. However, some lenders may offer zero points at a higher interest rate, which may significantly reduce your initial costs, although your payments may be somewhat higher.
Talk to some lenders to determine the available
rates and the costs associated with refinancing. These costs
include appraisals, attorney's fees, and points. Then determine
what your new payment would be if you refinanced. You can
estimate how long it will take to recover the costs of
refinancing by dividing your closing costs by the difference
between your new and old payments (your monthly savings).
However, the ultimate amount you may save depends on many
factors, including your total refinancing costs, whether you sell
your home in the near future, and the effects of refinancing on
The old rule of thumb used to be that you shouldn't refinance unless the new interest rate is at least two percentage points lower. However, many lenders are now offering zero point loans and low-cost refinancing. Therefore, even if your rate change is less than one percentage point, you may be able to save some money by refinancing.
In refinancing, lenders usually offer a range
of interest rates at different amounts of points. A point equals
one percent of the loan amount. For example, three points on a
$100,000 mortgage loan would add $3,000 to the refinancing
Shopping for points as well as interest rates may save you money. As a rule of thumb, each point adds about one-eighth to one-quarter of one percent to the interest rate the lender is offering.
Generally, the lower the interest rate on the loan, the more points the lending institution will charge. Some lenders offer refinancing with no points, but generally charge higher interest rates.
To decide what combination of rate and points is best for you, balance the amount you can pay up front with the amount you can pay monthly. The less time that you keep the loan, the more expensive points become. If you plan to stay in your house for a long time, then it may be worthwhile to pay additional points to obtain a lower interest rate.
Some lenders may offer to finance the points so that you do not have to pay them up front. This means that the points will be added to your loan balance, and you will pay a finance charge on them. Although this may enable you to get the financing, it also will increase the amount of your monthly payments.
Settlement costs typically include fees for the
loan application, title search, appraisal, loan origination,
credit check, and lawyer's services. You also may be required to
pay recordation fees or transfer taxes. If you are shopping for a
lender, ask each one for a list of charges and costs you must pay
at closing. Some lenders may require that some of these costs be
paid at the time of application.
With a lower interest rate on your home loan,
you will have less interest to deduct on your income tax return.
That, of course, may increase your tax payments and decrease the
total savings you might obtain from a new, lower-interest
You should be aware of an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) ruling with respect to points paid solely for refinancing your home mortgage. IRS regulations require that interest (points) paid up front for refinancing must be deducted over the life of the loan -- not in the year you refinance -- unless the loan is for home improvements. This means that if you paid a certain number of points, you would have to spread the tax deduction for those points over the life of the loan. If, however, the refinancing is for home improvements -- or a portion of the loan is for this purpose -- you may be able to deduct the points -- or a portion of the points -- under certain circumstances. Check with the IRS regarding the current rulings on refinancing, particularly if you are using the new loan to make home improvements.
If you are thinking about refinancing your
mortgage, you might want to consider other types of mortgages.
For example, you might want to look into a 15-year, fixed-rate
mortgage. In this plan, your mortgage payments are somewhat
higher than a longer-term loan, but you pay substantially less
interest over the life of the loan and build equity more quickly.
(Of course, this also means you have less interest to deduct on
your income tax return.)
You also might want to consider refinancing if you have an adjustable rate mortgage with high or no limits on interest rate increases. You might want to switch to a fixed-rate mortgage or to an adjustable rate mortgage that limits changes in the rate at each adjustment date as well as over the life of the loan.
If you decide to apply for refinancing with a particular lender, and if you do not want to let the interest rate "float" until closing, get a written statement guaranteeing the interest rate and the number of discount points that you will pay at closing. This binding commitment or "lock-in" ensures that the lender will not raise these costs even if rates increase before you settle on the new loan. You also may consider requesting an agreement where the interest rate can decrease but not increase before closing. If you cannot get the lender to put this information in writing, you may wish to choose one who will.
Most lenders place a limit on the length of time (say, 60 days) they will guarantee the interest rate. You must sign the loan during that time or lose the benefit of that particular rate. Because many people are refinancing their mortgages, there may be a delay in processing the papers. Therefore, you may want to contact your loan officer periodically to check on the progress of your loan approval and to see if additional information is needed.
If you decide to refinance your mortgage,
shopping around by calling several lending institutions to ask
each one what interest and fees they charge will help you get the
best deal available. Also ask each about their "annual
percentage rate" (APR) and compare them. The APR will tell
you the total credit costs of the refinancing, including
interest, points, and other charges.
Remember, you do not have to refinance your mortgage with the same lender that provided your original mortgage. However, to keep your business, some lenders will offer their original mortgage customers the incentive of lower mortgage interest rates, sometimes with reduced closing costs.
For a refinancing, the lender must give you a
written statement of the costs and terms of the financing before
you become legally obligated for the loan, as required by the
Truth in Lending Act. You usually will receive the information
around the time of settlement, although some lenders provide it
earlier. You will want to review this statement carefully before
you sign the loan. The disclosure tells you the APR, finance
charge, amount financed, payment schedule, and other important
credit terms. If you refinance with a different lender, or if you
borrow beyond your unpaid balance with your current lender, you
also must be given the right to rescind the loan. In these loans,
you have the right to rescind or cancel the transaction within
three business days following settlement, receipt of your Truth
in Lending disclosures, or receipt of your cancellation notice,
whichever occurs last.
When you apply for a mortgage, some lenders
require you to pay a special charge to cover the costs of
processing your application. The amount of this fee varies, but
it may be $100 to $200. Usually, you must pay this charge at the
time you file the application.
Some lenders do not refund this application fee if you are not approved for the loan or if you decide not to take it. So, before you apply for a mortgage, ask lenders whether they charge an application fee. If they do, find out how much it is and under what circumstances and to what extent it is refundable. However, if you elect to cancel the transaction within three business days after you close the loan, as discussed above, you are entitled to a refund of all costs and charges imposed for the credit transaction.
If you have further questions about refinancing
or problems with financing companies, you may write to:
Correspondence Branch, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D.C.
20580. While the FTC cannot resolve individual disputes, it can
act when it sees a pattern of possible law violations.
For a free copy of Best Sellers, a listing of all the FTC's consumer publications, write to: Public Reference, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, D.C. 20580.
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